Articles related to fractional reserve
Alasdair Macleod - Finance and Eco.
The origin of cycles
It was Karl Marx who was among the first believers that cyclical behaviour was endemic to free markets.He lived through a time when there was a regular cycle of boom and bust, with phases of economic expansion followed by contraction. Workers were employed and then unemployed, and the only way this could be stopped, in Marxian economics, was for the workers to acquire the means of production, or more correctly, the state to do so on their behalf.Other economists, such as Jevons and Wicksell, rec
Sunday, January 24, 2021
Graham Summer - Gains Pains & Capital
The West Will Become The New ‘Third World’: PricewaterhouseCoopers 
Hold your real assets outside of the banking system in one of many private international facilities  -->  The West Will Become The New ‘Third World’: PricewaterhouseCoopers Written by Jeff Nielson (CLICK HERE FOR ORIGINAL) First World The term “First World” refers to so called developed, capitalist, industrial countries, roughly, a bloc of countries aligned with the United States after word war II, with more or less common political and economi
Sunday, January 17, 2021
Mike Hewitt - Dollar Daze
  America's Forgotten War Against the Central Banks
"Let me issue and control a nation's money supply, and I care not who makes its laws." (Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of Rothschild Banking Dynasty) Many prominent Americans such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Andrew Jackson have argued and fought against the central banking polices used throughout Europe. A note issued by a central bank, such as the Federal Reserve Note, is bank currency. These notes are given to the government in exchange for an interest-bearing g
Tuesday, January 5, 2021
George F. Smith - Barbarous Relic
  Fielding my grandson’s questions about gold and banking
My grandson had quite a day at school.He had learned that the economy had been suffering from things called Panics, capital P, during the 19th century and had another big one in the early 20th century.He had been told that responsible, public-spirited men like J. P. Morgan had organized a central bank to prevent those Panics.He and other bankers finally got the government to go along with their idea and pass it into law in late 1913.And wouldn’t you know it — we’ve had no more Panics since then.
Thursday, December 24, 2020
Frank Shostak
  Why Fractional-Reserve Banking Would Be Limited in an Unhampered Market 
The so-called multiplier arises as a result of the fact that banks are legally permitted to use money that is placed in demand deposits. Banks treat this type of money as if it was loaned to them, thus loaning it out while simultaneously allowing depositors to spend that money.RELATED: "Austrians, Fractional Reserves, and the Money Multiplier" by Robert BatemarcoFor example, if John places $100 in demand deposit at Bank One he doesn't relinquish his claim over the deposited $100. He has unlimite
Tuesday, December 22, 2020
Antal E. Fekete - Gold University
Fractional Reserve Banking Revisited
"Fractional reserve banking" is a misnomer as it suggests that part of the money created through the loan process is backed by nothing. In reality, the part not backed by gold reserve is fully backed by a bank asset called self-liquidating bill of exchange (bill for short). As Mises himself would admit, bills are capable of monetary circulation (as they did indeed circulate in the Manchester area that lay outside the boundaries of the monopoly of the Bank of England in the 19th century).
Sunday, December 20, 2020
Frank Shostak
Inflation Is Not About Price Increases
There is almost complete unanimity among economists and various commentators that inflation is about general increases in the prices of goods and services. From this it is established that anything that contributes to price increases sets in motion inflation.A fall in unemployment or a rise in economic activity is seen as a potential inflationary trigger. Some other triggers, such as rises in commodity prices or workers’ wages, are also regarded as potential threats.If inflation is just a genera
Monday, November 16, 2020
George F. Smith - Barbarous Relic
  The Virtue of Hoarding 
Most people would admit to hoarding money only with a tinge of guilt, because to be a hoarder carries with it the suggestion of being a miser — a Scrooge. And yet, every participant in an economy based on indirect exchange holds some amount of money and can be said to be hoarding it, that is, declining to spend it. Hoarding is a strategy for achieving personal goals or for dealing with economic uncertainty.
Monday, October 19, 2020
Alasdair Macleod - Finance and Eco.
The fiat money quantity (FMQ) 
Summary : This paper seeks to establish a measure of currency quantity that helps economists identify and estimate the risk that confidence in fiat currencies might be significantly eroded or even vanish altogether. It is this phenomenon that was referred to in the great European currency inflations of the 1920s as Katastrophenhausse, or a crack-up boom, when ordinary people lose all confidence in a fiat currency, disposing of it as rapidly as possible instead preferring ownership of goods.This is
Thursday, September 17, 2020
Antal E. Fekete - Gold University
The Invention Of Discounting

Sunday, August 23, 2020
Antal E. Fekete - Gold University
  The Second Greatest Story Ever Told 
Fable has it that paper currency came into being as warehouse receipts issued by the goldsmith against gold left on deposit for safe-keeping. The owners found that they could make purchases with these warehouse receipts as easily as with gold coins. Then the goldsmith went on lending out at interest his fictitious warehouse receipts. According to this fable, the fraudulent business of the goldsmith in issuing warehouse receipts against non-existent gold was the embryonic form of the fractional-reserve banking of today.
Sunday, August 2, 2020
Thorsten Polleit
  The Fiasco of Fiat Money 
I. Today's worldwide paper-, or "fiat-," money regime is an economically and socially destructive scheme — with far-reaching and seriously harmful economic and societal consequences, effects that extend beyond what most people would imagine. Fiat money is inflationary; it benefits a few at the expense of many others; it causes boom-and-bust cycles; it leads tooverindebtedness; it corrupts society's morals; and it will ultimately end in a depression on a grand scale.
Saturday, July 11, 2020
Frank Shostak
  Why Wage Growth Is So Weak 
The yearly growth rate of average hourly earnings in production and non-supervisory employment in the private sector eased to 2.3% in June from 2.4% in May.Many experts are puzzled by the subdued increase in workers earnings. After all, it is held the US economy has been in an expansionary phase for quite some time now. Softer real output growth important reason why hourly earnings remain under pressureAccording to the US Government’s own data, since 2000, in terms of industrial producti
Friday, June 19, 2020
How did it happen ? - Barbarous Relic
The Virtue of Hoarding 

Sunday, June 7, 2020
Frank Shostak
How Much Money should there be  
Most economists believe that a growing economy requires a growing money stock, on grounds that growth gives rise to a greater demand for money which must be accommodated. Failing to do so, it is maintained, will lead to a decline in the prices of goods and services, which in turn will destabilize the economy and lead to an economic recession-or, even worse, depression
Saturday, June 6, 2020
George F. Smith - Barbarous Relic
  Who paid for the Civil War  
When war broke out in 1861, the federal government was without its own money machine, though that would soon change. As expenses from the war mounted, the U.S. government once again issued Treasury Notes to help finance it. The Act of July 17, 1861 authorized Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase to issue notes at 7.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Robert Blumen - 24hgold
Real Bills, Phony Wealth 
"The masses are misled by the assertions of the pseudo-experts,” wrote Mises, “that cheap money can make them prosperous at no expense whatever.” The damage that this inflationary fallacy has done to our monetary institutions cannot be over-estimated. In spite of efforts by classical and Austrian economists to refute it, it refuses to die. It has been resurrected under many guises, but all with the same error at its core: that printing money can create real wealth.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Silver Shield
  The Silver Bullet And The Silver Shield 
It is both a Silver Bullet to rebel against the Elite's corrupt system and a Silver Shield to protect your family and wealth in a post- dollar world. Buying physical silver is non-violent, non-compliant resistance. Most importantly it works outside of the system and it cannot be stopped
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Edwin Vieira - GATA
Silver and Gold Guarantee Freedom 
Silver and gold are not merely valuable commodities, investments, and media of exchange. More importantly, they are key "checks and balances" in America's legal and political institutions. The fight against the use of silver and gold as money that has been waged by bankers and rogue politicians since the 1870s as to silver and the 1930s as to gold -- and will intensify as fiat currencies collapse throughout the world -- is ultimately directed against America's national independence, her constitutional government, and every common American's individual liberty and prosperity.
Monday, April 20, 2020
George F. Smith - Barbarous Relic
  Inflation Inferno I 
Throughout history, governments have fought against the use of sound money. In 1912, Ludwig vonMises identified the reason for this: The sound-money principle has two aspects. It is affirmative in approving the market's choice of a commonly-used medium of exchange. It is negative in obstructing the government's propensity to meddle with the currency system.
Saturday, April 11, 2020