His fellow independents will be James Leng, the chairman designate of Rio Tinto, and Alexander Shokhin, president of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs.
BP and Alfa-Access Renova (AAR) have agreed to appoint the three directors to avoid the risk of deadlock between the 50:50 owners of the joint venture, which are represented on the 11-strong board by four directors from each side.
BP's four nominated directors on the main board of TNK-BP are: Andy Inglis, chief executive of BP's upstream business, David Peattie, BP's head of Russian business, Iain Macdonald, BP's deputy chief financial officer and Lord Robertson of Port Ellen. The AAR-nominated directors are Alfa Group chairman, Mikhail M Fridman, Renova Group chairman, Viktor F Vekselberg, Access Industries chairman, Len Blavatnik and Chairman of Pamplona Capital Management, Alex Knaster.
Until a new CEO of TNK-BP is announced, Tim Summers will continue in the role.
Welcoming the new structure, BP chief executive Tony Hayward said: "We believe the composition of this board, which includes individuals of significant distinction in business and politics, can achieve good business alignment between the shareholders of TNK-BP and safeguard the interests of all sides.
"I am especially pleased that Gerhard Schroeder has agreed to join the restructured board. The counsel of such a distinguished statesman, who brings both enormous geo-political experience and a history of strong relationships with Russia, gives me particular confidence that the next chapter in the progress of TNK-BP will be good for all shareholders and for Russia."
Herr Schroeder said: "I am looking forward to working together with the other members of the main board of TNK-BP. I feel certain that, with the support and trust of both shareholder groups, I will be able to make a contribution to the company's success that will serve as an important example of Russia's cooperation with international investors, thereby providing a significant contribution to Russia's integration in the global economy."