Dundee Precious Metals Inc

Published : December 21st, 2015

Dundee Precious Metals Announces 15% Increase to Measured and Indicated Resources at Chelopech

( 0 vote, 0/5 ) Print article
  Article Comments Comment this article Rating Follow Company  

Dundee Precious Metals Announces 15% Increase to Measured and Indicated Resources at Chelopech

--( - ) - (TSX:DPM) ('DPM' or 'the Company') is pleased to announce a four million tonne ('Mt') increase in the Measured and Indicated Mineral Resource categories at its Chelopech mine in .


  • 15% increase to the Measured and Indicated Mineral Resource category of the Mineral Resource inventory, net of depletion
  • Mining approach successfully demonstrated with the 150 crown pillar enables extraction of materials near historical cave zones previously restricted from mining

Resource drilling activity in 2015 has targeted prior mining areas, where sub-level caving was previously conducted, to confirm the historical in-situ resources which were restricted from mining by Bulgarian authorities due to technical difficulties. DPM has always considered that these volumes may be mineable. Over the last two years, Chelopech has successfully demonstrated the safe and efficient recovery of 151,000 tonnes of ore from the block 150 orebody crown pillar. It is intended to use the same mining approach as successfully demonstrated with the 150 crown pillar to be able to extract these materials in proximity to historical cave zones. This has resulted in a revision to the Mineral Resource inventory at Chelopech mine, specifically the conversion of some Inferred Mineral Resource volumes to Indicated Mineral Resources which are now available for consideration for conversion to Mineral Reserves in due course. This is an increase of 15%, corresponding to a 4.2Mt increase in the Measured and Indicated Mineral Resource category of the Mineral Resource Inventory. With the additional resources added and the further exploration drilling planned for 2016, a possible expansion to current production will be evaluated and considered over the course of the coming year.

Mineral Resources are not Mineral Reserves and do not have demonstrated economic viability.

'We continue to focus on adding additional resources and reserves, as well as optimizing operational performance, to enhance the value creation from our flagship operation. Through our innovative mining practices, we have been able to demonstrate the technical viability of mining these additional resources adjacent to the old sub-level cave zones,' stated , President and CEO.

Mineral Resources have been classified as Measured, Indicated and Inferred Mineral Resources, following the guidelines specified by the , Metallurgy and Petroleum ('CIM') and adopted under National Instrument 43-101 ('NI 43-101'). Mineral Resources have been estimated as at and reported using a gold equivalent (Au + Cu*2.06) cut-off of 3 g/t and a break-even NSR methodology.

Dundee Precious Metals - Chelopech
Chelopech Mineral Resource Estimate as at September 30, 2015
Grades Metal Content
Resource Au Ag Cu S As Au Ag Cu
Category MTonnes (g/t) (g/t) (%) (%) (%) (MOz) (MOz) (MLbs)
Measured 22.3 3.78 9.25 1.20 14.73 0.36 2.706 6.627 590
Indicated 9.1 3.67 9.35 1.00 13.56 0.27 1.075 2.742 201
Total M+I 31.4 3.73 9.27 1.14 14.38 0.33 3.767 9.364 791
Inferred 2.9 2.48 9.11 0.83 11.89 0.12 0.228 0.839 52
Mineral Resource Estimates ('MRE') are reported using a gold equivalent cut-off of 3.0 g/t (Au + Cu*2.06) and an operating net profit cut-off of >USD0.
Tonnages are rounded to the nearest 1,000 tonnes to reflect this as an estimate.
Metal content is rounded to the nearest 100 tonnes or 100 ozs to reflect this as an estimate.
MREs are based on long term metals prices of USD 1,250/oz Au, USD 23/oz Ag and USD 2.75/lb Cu, as of September 30, 2015.
The MRE has been depleted for mining as at September 30, 2015.

The updated MRE shows an increase of 15% in the Measured and Indicated Mineral Resource category versus the previous Mineral Resource statement (see appendix) while Inferred Resources have decreased by 65%. This can be attributed to the re-classification of resources above the 410 level which in previous resource estimates were assigned inferred category. This can also be attributed to ongoing infill and resource development drilling programs which have defined and re-classified resources in blocks 19, 103, 151, 149 and 149 south.


Historic sub-level caving ('SLC') operations within the Chelopech mine left considerable un-mined resources on the flanks of the caved areas, above the 390 level. Due to the technical difficulties in accessing this area, in-situ resources above the 410 level were previously restricted from mining by Bulgarian authorities. Such areas of the resource block model, although well supported by valid data, geology and geostatistical evaluation, have been included in previous MRE updates and assigned to the Inferred Mineral Resource category, and historically restricted from being converted to Mineral Reserves under the mine plan. DPM has long recognized this material can be mined and endeavoured to engineer a solution to extract this material safely and profitably. The grades from these remnants are typically higher than the average resource grade and are therefore an attractive target.

After a detailed, internal geotechnical review and mining trade off study in 2013, mining commenced using long hole open stoping ('LHOS') with subsequent backfill, within the 150 block crown pillar directly beneath the caved zone. The results to date have confirmed the concept of mining reserves in close proximity to historical SLC zones. Although ground conditions are highly stressed, ground support regimes have allowed safe and efficient extraction of material from the crown pillar. Data collection and geotechnical reviews are actively ongoing in order to optimize the ground support practices. Additionally, careful grade control measures are in place to ensure dilution is being minimized.

Crown Pillar LHOS production statistics, 2013 to present day
Stope Tonnes Losses Dilution Mining cost ($/t)
11a 43,207 6% 7% 39
17a 27,810 6% 7%
13a 20,271 17% 9%
15a 59,951 - 21%
TOTAL 151,239 10% 11% 39
Current production statistics for all other LHOS mining activities, 2015
Stope Tonnes Losses Dilution Mining cost ($/t)
ALL 1,866,778 4% 9% 36
Variance between crown pillar mining activities and all other mining activities
Stope Tonnes Losses Dilution Mining cost ($/t)
ALL - +6% +2% +3
Table 1: Key production statistics for Crown Pillar Mining using the LHOS mining approach (H1 2013 to present day) vs. standard LHOS employed at the Chelopech mine (2015).

Based on this work, DPM has demonstrated to the Bulgarian authorities that the remaining resources within proximity to the historic SLC area above the 410 level are technically mineable allowing a re-classification of resources to occur. This equates to a 15% increase in the Measured and Indicated Mineral Resource category, which offsets the 4.1Mt of depleted resources mined as of until present.

DPM believes that this positive outcome provides a firm basis for further resource development drilling to ascertain the possibility of developing the remaining resources. In light of this, resource development work will continue in the first half of 2016 to drill the 103 and 19 block areas in the 390 to 450 level and plans are being made to extend this to the 150 and 151 zones. The planned drilling in these areas will total 24,000 metres during 2016. Additional access to the areas above the 450 level will require capital development and will be considered in 2016 in preparation for resource drilling in 2017.

In 2014, a series of technical constraints were identified which limited Chelopech mining operations from increasing production rates. As a result of ongoing technical improvements throughout 2014 and 2015, Chelopech remains on target to meet production rates of 2.2Mtpa early in 2016. Major improvements have been witnessed in the efficiency of ground supporting practices, longhole drilling and backfill process. The cumulative efforts of this work has been demonstrated with an increase in pre-drilled reserve inventories from 158,485 tonnes in , to 425,685 tonnes as of , equating to a 168% increase.

DPM is currently revising the Mineral Reserve estimate for the Chelopech mine based on the updated Mineral Resources. The Company intends to issue the results of the Mineral Reserve estimate during the first quarter of 2016.

To view Figures 1-3 please click on the following link: http://media3.marketwire.com/docs/DundeeFigures1-3.pdf

Technical Information

The MRE contained in this news release was prepared by ('CSA'), in accordance with Canadian regulatory requirements set out in NI 43-101 Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects, and has been reviewed and approved by , MAIG, Director and Principal Geologist of CSA. is an independent Qualified Person ('QP'), as defined under NI 43-101. An NI 43-101 compliant technical report is expected to be filed on SEDAR within 45 days of the date of this news release.

, Director, Processing, and , Corporate Senior Resource Geologist, both of DPM, who are QPs and not independent of the Company, have also reviewed and approved the contents of this release.

The MRE contained herein may be subject to legal, political, environmental or other risks that could materially affect the potential development of such Mineral Resources. See the technical report entitled 'Mineral Resource and Reserve Update Chelopech Project' filed on SEDAR at www.sedar.com, on for more information with respect to the key assumptions, parameters, methods and risks of determination associated with the foregoing MRE.

Cautionary note to U.S. Investors concerning estimates of Mineral Resources. These estimates have been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Canadian securities laws, which differ from the requirements of U.S. securities laws. The terms 'mineral resource', 'measured mineral resource', 'indicated mineral resource' and 'inferred mineral resource' are defined in NI 43-101 and recognized by Canadian securities laws but are not defined terms under the ('SEC') Guide 7 ('SEC Guide 7') or recognized under U.S. securities laws. U.S. investors are cautioned not to assume that any part or all of mineral deposits in these categories will ever be upgraded to mineral reserves. 'Inferred mineral resources' have a great amount of uncertainty as to their existence, and great uncertainty as to their economic and legal feasibility. It cannot be assumed that all or any part of an 'inferred mineral resource' will ever be upgraded to a higher category. Under Canadian securities laws, estimates of 'inferred mineral resources' may not form the basis of feasibility or pre-feasibility studies. U.S. investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of an inferred mineral resource exists or is economically or legally mineable. Accordingly, these mineral resource estimates and related information may not be comparable to similar information made public by U.S. companies subject to the reporting and disclosure requirements under the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, including SEC Guide 7.


is a Canadian based, international gold mining company engaged in the acquisition, exploration, development, mining and processing of precious metals. The Company's principal operating assets include the Chelopech operation, which produces a copper concentrate containing gold and silver, located east of ; the Kapan operation, which produces a copper concentrate and a zinc concentrate, both containing gold and silver, located in southern ; and the Tsumeb smelter, a concentrate processing facility located in . DPM also holds interests in a number of developing gold properties located in , , and northern , including the Krumovgrad project and interests held through its 50.1% owned subsidiary, , and its 12.0% interest in

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements

This news release contains 'forward looking statements' that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Forward looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements with respect to the technical potential to the mine resources proximal to the historic SLC area which was previously restricted from mining, the future price of gold, copper, zinc and silver, the estimation of mineral reserves and resources, the realization of such mineral estimates, the potential to upgrade resources to reserves, and the potential to increase future production and output. Often, but not always, forward looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as 'plans', 'expects', or 'does not expect', 'is expected', 'budget', 'scheduled', 'estimates', 'forecasts', 'intends', 'anticipates', or 'does not anticipate', or 'believes', or variations of such words and phrases or that state that certain actions, events or results 'may', 'could', 'would', 'might' or 'will' be taken, occur or be achieved. Forward looking statements are based on the opinions and estimates of management as of the date such statements are made and they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from any other future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward looking statements.
Such factors include, among others: the actual results of current exploration activities; conclusions of technical and economic evaluations; changes in project parameters as plans continue to be refined; future prices of gold, copper, zinc and silver; possible variations in ore grade or recovery rates; failure of plant, equipment or processes to operate as anticipated; accidents, labour disputes and other risks of the mining industry; delays in obtaining governmental approvals or financing or in the completion of development or construction activities, uncertainties inherent with conducting business in foreign jurisdictions where corruption, civil unrest, political instability and uncertainties with the rule of law may impact the Company's activities; fluctuations in metal prices; unanticipated title disputes; claims or litigation; limitation on insurance coverage; as well as those risk factors discussed or referred to in the Company's MD&A under the heading 'Risks and Uncertainties' and under the heading 'Cautionary Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements' which include further details on material assumptions used to develop such forward looking statements and material risk factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from forward looking statements, and other documents (including without limitation the Company's latest AIF) filed from time to time with the securities regulatory authorities in all provinces and territories of and available on SEDAR at www.sedar.com. There can be no assurance that forward looking statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Unless required by securities laws, the Company undertakes no obligation to update forward looking statements if circumstances or management's estimates or opinions should change. Accordingly, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward looking statements.


Mineral Resource comparison between Chelopech Mineral Resources as of (those publicly reported on ) and .

@ December 31, 2014
Measured 18.3 3.96 2.328 9.35 5.498 1.27 513
Indicated 8.9 3.86 1.109 8.28 2.382 1.02 201
Measured and Indicated 27.2 3.93 3.437 9.00 7.880 1.19 714
Inferred 8.3 2.66 0.712 11.27 3.021 0.91 167
Measured 22.3 3.78 2.706 9.25 6.627 1.20 590
Indicated 9.1 3.67 1.075 9.35 2.742 1.00 201
Measured and Indicated 31.4 3.73 3.767 9.27 9.364 1.14 791
Inferred 2.9 2.48 0.228 9.11 0.839 0.83 52
MREs are reported using a gold equivalent cut-off of 3.0 g/t (Au + Cu*2.06) and an operating net profit cut-off of >USD0.
Tonnages are rounded to the nearest 1,000 tonnes to reflect this as an estimate.
Metal content is rounded to the nearest 100 tonnes or 100 ozs to reflect this as an estimate.
MREs are based on long term metals prices of USD 1,250/oz Au, USD 23/oz Ag and USD 2.75/lb Cu.
Read the rest of the article at www.noodls.com

Dundee Precious Metals Inc

ISIN : CA2652692096
CUSIP : 265269-20-9
Follow and Invest
Add to watch list Add to your portfolio Add or edit a note
Add Alert Add to Watchlists Add to Portfolio Add Note
Projects & res.
Asset profile
Contact Cpy

Dundee Precious Metals is a zinc and gold producing company based in Canada.

Dundee Precious Metals produces zinc, gold, copper and silver in Armenia, develops copper, gold and silver in Bulgaria.

Its main asset in production is KAPAN in Armenia, its main assets in development are CHELOPECH and KRUMOVGRAD in Bulgaria and its main exploration property is SURDULICA in Bulgaria.

Dundee Precious Metals is listed in Canada. Its market capitalisation is CA$ 1.4 billions as of today (US$ 1.1 billions, € 971.1 millions).

Its stock quote reached its highest recent level on December 17, 2010 at CA$ 9.99, and its lowest recent point on January 22, 2016 at CA$ 0.84.

Dundee Precious Metals has 178 440 000 shares outstanding.

Your feedback is appreciated, please leave a comment or rate this article.
Rate : Average note :0 (0 vote) View Top rated
In the News and Medias of Dundee Precious Metals Inc
2/27/2019Exyn introduces robots into Dundee Precious Metals' gold min...
4/13/2010Discovers New Gold Deposits in Bulgaria
Financings of Dundee Precious Metals Inc
10/9/2013Issued Shares and Warrants of Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. on ...
6/11/2013Announces Result of Early Warrant Exercise Program
Nominations of Dundee Precious Metals Inc
3/21/2013DPM Board Announces Executive Transition and Senior Officer ...
11/14/2012DPM Board Announces Senior Appointment
9/19/2012Eira Thomas Joins Dundee Precious Metals' Board of Directors
Financials of Dundee Precious Metals Inc
10/15/2013NOTICE: DPM 2013 Third Quarter Financial Results
8/1/2013Announces 2013 Second Quarter Results
7/10/2013NOTICE: DPM 2013 Second Quarter Financial Results
5/9/2013Announces 2013 First Quarter Results
4/17/2013NOTICE: DPM 2013 First Quarter Financial Results
2/15/2013Announces 2012 Fourth Quarter and Annual Results and 2013 Gu...
1/24/2013NOTICE: DPM Fourth Quarter and Year End 2012 Results
11/7/2012Announces 2012 Third Quarter Results
10/18/2012NOTICE: Dundee Precious Metals 2012 Third Quarter Results
8/1/2012Announces 2012 Second Quarter Results and Updated 2012 Guida...
7/9/2012NOTICE: DPM 2012 Second Quarter Results
5/8/2012DPM First Quarter 2012 Financial Results
10/14/2011NOTICE: DPM Third Quarter 2011 Results
7/11/2011NOTICE: DPM Second Quarter 2011 Results
4/27/2011Notice: DPM Annual General Meeting and 2011 First Quarter Re...
2/23/2011DPM Reports Fourth Quarter 2010
Project news of Dundee Precious Metals Inc
9/16/2013s 2013 Production Guidance
5/16/2013(Chelopech)Confirms Fundamentals Unchanged; Chelopech Mine Operating at...
9/10/2012(Chelopech)DPM Files Technical Report on Chelopech Pyrite Recovery Proj...
1/13/2012(Krumovgrad)Files Technical Report on Krumovgrad Gold Project
11/24/2011(Krumovgrad)Bulgarian Government Approves EIA for DPM's Krumovgrad Gold ...
2/23/2011(Chelopech)DPM Reports Fourth Quarter 2010 and Year-End Results and Upd...
Corporate news of Dundee Precious Metals Inc
7/28/2016Dundee Precious Metals Announces 2016 Second Quarter Results
7/25/2016Dundee Precious Metals Announces Power Blackout in Namibia R...
7/11/2016DPM Announces Closing of C$54.65 Million Bought Deal Financi...
7/7/2016Dundee Precious Metals Announces Second Quarter Production R...
6/20/2016DPM Announces C$50 Million Bought Deal Financing
12/21/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces 15% Increase to Measured an...
11/19/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces Approval of Main Detailed D...
11/5/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces 2015 Third Quarter Results
11/4/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces Changes to Board of Directo...
10/8/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces Third Quarter Production Re...
9/15/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces Maintenance of the Tsumeb S...
7/30/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces 2015 Second Quarter Results
7/9/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces Second Quarter Production R...
4/14/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces First Quarter Production Re...
4/14/2015Announces First Quarter Production Results and Provides Noti...
3/31/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces Reserve and Resource Update...
3/31/2015Announces Reserve and Resource Update for 2015
3/18/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces Commencement of Annual Tsum...
3/18/2015Announces Commencement of Annual Tsumeb Smelter Shutdown
2/18/2015Tags to Riches: Mining Company Tracks Production With Sensor...
2/13/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces 2014 Fourth Quarter and Ann...
2/13/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces 2014 Fourth Quarter and Ann...
1/22/2015NOTICE: Dundee Precious Metals 2014 Fourth Quarter and Year ...
1/14/2015Dundee Precious Metals Announces Record Fourth Quarter Produ...
1/14/2015(Chelopech)Announces Record Fourth Quarter Production at Chelopech and ...
11/6/2014Dundee Precious Metals Announces 2014 Third Quarter Results
11/5/2014Dundee Precious Metals Announces 2014 Third Quarter Results
10/16/2014NOTICE: Dundee Precious Metals 2014 Third Quarter Results
10/16/2014NOTICE: Dundee Precious Metals 2014 Third Quarter Results
10/8/2014Dundee Precious Metals Announces a Favourable Preliminary Ec...
10/8/2014Dundee Precious Metals Provides Third Quarter 2014 Productio...
10/3/2014Dundee Precious Metals Acquires Shares and Warrants of Avala...
7/30/2014Dundee Precious Metals Announces 2014 Second Quarter Results
7/14/2014NOTICE: DPM 2014 Second Quarter Results
7/10/2014Dundee Precious Metals Announces Krumovgrad Municipal Counci...
7/10/2014Dundee Precious Metals Announces Krumovgrad Municipal Counci...
6/26/2014Dundee Precious Metals Increases Revolving Credit Facility b...
5/20/2014Dundee Precious Metals Strengthens Senior Management Team
8/29/2013Announces First Underground Mineral Resource Estimate for th...
7/24/2012Reports on Progress of Acid Plant at Smelter in Namibia
4/30/2012Receives First Contact from Namibian Government on Tsumeb Sm...
4/23/2012DPM Exercises Warrants of Dunav Resources Ltd.
2/16/2012DPM Announces 2011 Deno Gold Open Pit Project and Undergroun...
1/26/2012(Krumovgrad)Bulgarian Court Dismisses Appeal of DPM's Krumovgrad Mining ...
11/30/2011(Krumovgrad)DPM: New Krumovgrad Feasibility Study Confirms Low Cash Cost...
9/15/2011Improves Safety and Operational Efficiency With AeroScout Re...
9/2/2011Dunav Resources and Dundee Precious Metals Complete Transact...
8/23/2011DPM to Acquire Shares and Warrants of Dunav Resources Ltd. o...
5/10/2011(Chelopech)DPM and Chelopech Mining Raise Final US$14.5 Million of Chel...
3/23/2011DPM Exercises Warrants of Avala Resources Ltd.
Comments closed
Latest comment posted for this article
Be the first to comment
Add your comment
CA$ 7.77
05/19 17:00 0.510
Prev close Open
7.26 7.37
Low High
7.33 7.82
Year l/h YTD var.
7.21 -  8.36 1.04%
52 week l/h 52 week var.
7.13 -  9.56 -10.38%
Volume 1 month var.
428,373 -0.766%
24hGold TrendPower© : -11
Produces Copper - Gold - Silver - Zinc
Develops Copper - Gold - Silver
Explores for Molybdenum
Interactive chart Add to compare
Print Compare Export
Last updated on : 2/23/2010
You must be logged in to use the porfolio and watchlists (free)
Top Newsreleases
Annual variation
5 years chart
3 months chart
3 months volume chart
Mining Company News
Plymouth Minerals LTDPLH.AX
Plymouth Minerals Intersects Further High Grade Potash in Drilling at Banio Potash Project - Plannin
AU$ 0.12-8.00%Trend Power :
announces expected non-cash impairment
AU$ 8.21-0.61%Trend Power :
Oceana Gold(Au)OGC.AX
AU$ 2.94-1.67%Trend Power :
Western Areas NL(Au-Ni-Pl)WSA.AX
Advance Notice - Full Year Results Conference Call
AU$ 3.84-0.26%Trend Power :
Canadian Zinc(Ag-Au-Cu)CZN.TO
Reports Financial Results for Q2 and Provides Project Updates
CA$ 0.12+4.55%Trend Power :
Stornoway Diamond(Gems-Au-Ur)SWY.TO
Second Quarter Results
CA$ 0.02+100.00%Trend Power :
McEwen Mining(Cu-Le-Zn)MUX
US$ 0.52+4.00%Trend Power :
Rentech Announces Results for Second Quarter 2017
US$ 0.20-12.28%Trend Power :
Reduced Funding Requirement
GBX 0.73+3.11%Trend Power :
Lupaka Gold Corp.LPK.V
Lupaka Gold Receives First Tranche Under Amended Invicta Financing Agreement
CA$ 0.02+0.00%Trend Power :
Closes Bridge Loan Financing
CA$ 3.67+0.82%Trend Power :
Guyana Goldfields(Cu-Zn-Pa)GUY.TO
Reports Second Quarter 2017 Results and Maintains Production Guidance
CA$ 1.84+0.00%Trend Power :
Lundin Mining(Ag-Au-Cu)LUN.TO
d Share Capital and Voting Rights for Lundin Mining
CA$ 10.79+6.41%Trend Power :
Canarc Res.(Au)CCM.TO
Canarc Reports High Grade Gold in Surface Rock Samples at Fondaway Canyon, Nevada
CA$ 0.29+0.00%Trend Power :
Q A April 2017 Quarterly Report
AU$ 0.28-5.17%Trend Power :
Uranium Res.(Ur)URRE
Commences Lithium Exploration Drilling at the Columbus Basin Project
US$ 6.80-2.86%Trend Power :
Platinum Group Metals(Au-Cu-Gems)PTM.TO
Platinum Group Metals Ltd. Operational and Strategic Process ...
CA$ 1.80+2.86%Trend Power :
Devon Energy(Ngas-Oil)DVN
Announces $340 Million of Non-Core Asset Sales
US$ 69.51-1.00%Trend Power :
Precision Drilling(Oil)PD-UN.TO
Announces 2017Second Quarter Financial Results
CA$ 8.66-0.35%Trend Power :
2nd Quarter Report
AU$ 0.04+0.00%Trend Power :